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Do you think that daydreaming is a waste of time?  Probably so.

"On the contrary," says L. Giambra, an expert in psychology (心理学), "Daydreaming is quite necessary.  Without it, the mind couldn't get done all the thinking it has to do during a normal day ...  You can't possibly do all your thinking with a consciousness (有意识,清醒).  Instead, your unconscious mind is working out problems all the time.  Daydreaming then may be one way that the unconscious and conscious states of mind have silent dialogues.

Early psychology experts paid no attention to the importance of daydreams or even considered them harmful.  At one time daydreaming was thought to be a cause of some mental illnesses.  They did not have a better understanding of daydreams until the late 1980's.  Eric Klinger, a professor of psychology, is the writer of the book DAYDREAMING.  Klinger says, "We know now that daydreaming is one of the main ways that we organize our lives, learn from our experiences, and plan for our futures ...  Daydreams really are a window on the things we fear and the things we long for in life."

Daydreams are usually very simple and direct, quite unlike sleep dreams, which may be hard to understand.  It's easier to gain a deep understanding of your life by paying close attention to your daydreams than by trying to examine your sleep dreams carefully.  Daydreams help you recognize the difficult situations in our life and find out a possible way of dealing with them.

Daydreams cannot be predicted.  They move off in unexpected direction which may be creative and full of ideas.  For many famous artists and scientists, daydreams were and are a main source of creative energy.

1. What's the writer's opinion of daydreaming?
A. He agrees with the early experts in psychology.
B. He is for L. Giambra and Eric Klinger.
C. He doesn't prefer either side.
D. He hasn't formed his own idea yet.

2. Which of the following statements is true?
A. Daydreaming is less harmful than sleep dreaming.
B. L. Giambra's opinion of daydreaming is opposite to Eric Klinger's.
C. Early experts firmly stuck to their own opinion on daydreaming.
D. Daydreams can come very suddenly and unexpectedly.

3. Which of the following can lead to daydreams according to the text?
A. Absence of attention.
B. Illness in mind.
C. Lack of sleep at night.
D. None of the above.

4. Daydreams can be described as __________.
A. the mirror of one's worries and wishes in life.
B. the unconscious state of mind.
C. some mental illnesses.
D. unusual thinking and feeling.

5. After reading the passage we can conclude that __________.
A.
daydreaming is neither harmful nor useful to daydreamers.
B. daydreams are not the same as, but similar to sleep dreams.
C. daydreaming is the result of silent dialogues between conscious and unconscious states of mind.
D. daydreams are of great help to us in solving problems.

  Score =  

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点评

    纵观全文, 关于 daydream 有新旧两派观点:

    旧派观点是:
Early psychology experts paid no attention to the importance of daydreams or even considered them harmful.  At one time daydreaming was thought to be a cause of some mental illnesses.

    新派观点是:

"Daydreaming is quite necessary.  Without it, the mind couldn't get done all the thinking it has to do during a normal day ...  You can't possibly do all your thinking with a consciousness.  Instead, your unconscious mind is working out problems all the time. "

    在这两个针锋相对的理论观点面前,作者的立场态度是什麽?作者写文来支持一方呢,还是客观介绍双方观点呢?请再浏览全文!

    在第二和第三段,作者分别引用了两位心理学家的话。从全文看,这两处引用显然是作者同意他们的观点而引用,显然是作者引用专家的话来支持自己的观点,达到自己的写作目的。

    在第四和第五段,作者进而自行阐述 daydream sleep dream 的区别,daydream 的作用,daydream 的特点,以及对 daydream 的最高评价(大师们的创作源泉)。不难看出,作者写作本文有着明显的倾向性和出发点:强烈推介关于 daydream 的新理论观点,为 daydream 平反,正名。有了这样的认识,关于中心主旨的题1和题5就容易答对了。

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