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Passage 18                                                                                                       看点评  

Disposing (处理) of waste has been a problem since humans started producing it. As more and more people choose to live close together in cities, the waste-disposal problem becomes increasingly difficult.

During the eighteenth century, it was usual for several neighboring towns to get together to select a faraway spot as a dump site. Residents or trash haulers (垃圾拖运者) would transport household rubbish, rotted wood, and old possessions to the site. Periodically some of the trash was burned and the rest was buried. The unpleasant sights and smells caused no problem because nobody lived close by.

Factories, mills, and other industrial sites also had waste to be disposed of. Those located on rivers often just dumped the unwanted remains into the water. Others built huge burners with chimneys to deal with the problem.

Several facts make these choices unacceptable to modern society. The first problem is space. Dumps, which are now called landfills, are most needed in heavily populated areas. Such areas rarely have empty land suitable for this purpose. Property is either too expensive or too close to residential neighborhoods. Long-distance trash hauling has been a common practice, but once farm areas are refusing to accept rubbish from elsewhere, cheap land within trucking distance of major city areas is almost nonexistent.

Awareness (意识) of pollution dangers has resulted in more strict rules of waste disposal. Pollution of rivers, ground water, land and air is a price people can no longer pay to get rid of waste. The amount of waste, however, continues to grow.

Recycling efforts have become commonplace, and many towns require their people to take part. Even the most efficient recycling programs, however, can hope to deal with only about 50 percent of a city's reusable waste.
 

1. The most suitable title for this passage would be __________.
A. Places for Disposing Waste
B. Waste Pollution Dangers
C. Ways of Getting Rid of Waste
D. Waste Disposal Problem

2. During the 18th century, people disposed their waste in many ways EXCEPT for __________.
A. burying it.
B. recycling it.
C. burning it.
D. throwing it into rivers.

3. What can be inferred from the fourth paragraph?
A. Farm areas accept waste from the city in modern society.
B. There is cheap land to bury waste in modern society.
C. It is difficult to find space to bury waste in modern society.
D. Ways to deal with waste in modern society stay the same.

4. The main purpose of writing this article is to _________.
A. draw people's attention to waste management.
B. warn people of the pollution dangers we are facing.
C. call on people to take part in recycling programs.
D. tell people a better way to get rid of the waste.

   Score =  

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点评

    本篇短文的题1和题4涉及对中心主旨的理解。

    环保是现在的热门话题,我们有着丰富的背景知识。背景知识可以帮助我们理解,但有时又会成为作题的障碍。我们只有认真仔细阅读原文,真正懂得作者的意思,才能作对题。以想当然的态度和以自己的观点取代作者的观点的做法,都是不可取的。

    俯瞰全文,第一段就是主题中心段落,第一句话就是全文的主题句Disposing (处理) of waste has been a problem since humans started producing it.第二,三段介绍了以前人们处理废物的方法。第四,五,六段分析了现在的问题:第四段谈到了以前的方法已不再适用;第五段谈到虽然有严格条例,但废弃物越来越多;第六段谈到虽然有回收措施,但最多只能处理50%的废弃物。

    由此我们可以得知本文的最佳题目(题1)是 "Waste Disposal Problem",即“处理垃圾废弃物的难题”,其它选项都似是而非。作者写作本文的目的(题4)是“draw people's attention to waste management”即“引起人们对垃圾废弃物的管理问题的注意”(A),而不是“警告污染的危险”(B),也不是“号召回收再利用废弃物”(C)

    选自2002-2003年海淀区高三期末考试英语试卷  2003.1

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