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Passage 19                                                                                                       看点评  

Most of the people who appear most often in the history books are great conquerors (征服者) and generals and soldiers, while the people who really helped civilization (文明) forward are often never mentioned at all.

We do not know who first set a broken leg, or made a seaworthy boat, or calculated (计算) the length of the year, but we know all about the killers and destroyers.  people think a great deal of them, so much so that on all the highest pillars (柱子) in the great cities of the world you will find the figure of a conquer or a general of a soldier.  And I think most people believe that the greatest countries are those that have beaten in the battle the greatest number of other countries and ruled over them as conquerors.

It is just possible they are, but they are not the most civilized.  Animals fight; so do savages (野蛮人); so to be good at fighting is to be good in the way in which an animal or a savage is good, but it is not to be civilized.  Even being good at getting other people to fight for you and telling them how to do it most efficiently ----- this, after all, is what conquerors and generals have done ---- is not being civilized.  People fight to settle quarrels.  Fighting means killing, and civilized people ought to be able to find some way of settling their quarrels rather than by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side, and then saying that the side which has killed most has won, and not only has won, but, because it has won, has been in the right.  For that is what is going to mean in a war, it means saying that might is right.


1. In the author's opinion, the countries that ruled over a large number of other countries are __________.
A. possibly the most civilized but not the greatest.
B. possibly the greatest in some degree but not the most civilized.
C. certainly not the greatest in any way.
D. neither the greatest nor the most civilized.

2. The author says that civilized people should __________.
A. not have any quarrels to settle.
B. not fight when there are no quarrels to settle.
C. settle their quarrels without fighting.
D. settle their quarrels by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side.

3. "Might is right" in the last sentence means that __________.
A. those who fight believe that the winner is right and the loser wrong.
B. only those who are powerful should go to war.
C. those who are fight should fight against those who are wrong.
D. in a way only those who are powerful will win.

   Score =   

Correct answers:                                                                                                         看点评


点评

    本篇短文由一个现象谈起:史书更多地记载征服者,将军士兵;很少涉及真正推动历史的普通人,进而批判了国际政治斗争中的一种谬误:战争的胜利一方就是道义上正确的的一方,就是推动人类文明发展的一方。呼吁通过和平手段解决纷争。

    本篇短文的题2和题3涉及对中心主旨的理解。

    题2问及文明人解决纷争的正确方式,自然应当选C,
settle their quarrels without fighting 但许多同学错选了D, 意思恰恰反了,说明没有读懂短文,没有抓住作者的基本思想。

    题3问及短文最后总结句中的“
Might is Right”的意思。作者在文章的最后分析了那些总是企图通过武力解决纷争的人的哲学,即他们相信“强权即公理”,题3的答案是A, those who fight believe that the winner is right and the loser wrong.许多同学错选了C。 C所表达的的精神是永远正确的,但“Might is Right”是作者在文中批判的一种错误的政治哲学;而且C的内容根本没有在本文讨论,所以C不对。选C的同学显然没有领悟文章最后一段的意思,没有抓住作者的基本思想。

    选自2002-2003年东城区高三期末考试英语试卷  2003.1              Main Idea

 

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