DR ABC                         

"I couldn’t believe my eyes! The car was upside down and the driver was bleeding and screaming. One of the passengers was on the ground. It looked as if she were dead. If I had known more about giving first aid, I could have helped them." People who have witnessed an accident often wish that they had done things differently. Seconds count in an emergency, and knowing what to do can mean the difference between life and death.

The most important thing to keep in mind when dealing with an emergency is to stay calm. If we were to panic, we would not be able to help. By staying calm we will be able to think what to do and make better decisions. We can also prepare for an emergency by learning more about first aid. Calling an ambulance or the police is important, but there is more we can and should do. If we know how to respond, we can save lives.

Many hospitals recommend that we use the letters DR ABC to remember what to do when we have to think fast. D stands for danger. We should first of all make sure that the accident scene is no longer dangerous. If we were to get hurt trying to save someone, we would not be able to help. R is for response. We can do a lot of good by simply asking "Are you all right?"  If the person can answer, we know that he or she is conscious and can breathe. The question will also calm the person, letting him or her know that help is on the way.

A is for airway. We must make sure that a person's airway is open and it is easy to breathe. This can be done by gently tipping the person's head back slightly. B is for breathing. We should check that the person can breathe. Is his or her chest moving? If the person is not breathing, we must try to start his or her breathing at once, using the mouth-to-mouth method. If this is not done within five minutes, the person will die. If a person is breathing but not conscious, it is usually best for him or her not to be moved. C is for circulation. Is the person's blood circulating? We can look for colour, coughing, and eye movement. We can also check a person's pulse by putting a finger on the person's neck or wrist. If a person is bleeding, we should cover the wound with a clean piece of cloth and press on the wound to stop the bleeding.

When we have checked the DR ABC, we should give the first aid that is needed and call an ambulance. We should never try to revive a person unless we know how to do it. We may make things worse. Many hospitals and schools offer training classes for people who are interested in learning first aid.

When we have given first aid, we should put the person in the recovery position. This is a way of placing a body so that the airway is clear and it is easy to breathe. Here is how it is done:
    1. Roll the person onto one side. Keep the legs straight.
    2. Place the hand of the person's upper arm under his or her chin.
    3. Bend the person's leg so that he or she will not roll over. We should stay with the person and wait for the ambulance. We can cover the person with a blanket or a jacket to help him or her stay warm.

This passage does not contain enough information for you to do first aid correctly! You have to study with a teacher. However, after a few hours of study you will manage to know enough to save other people's lives.

(Senior English for China  Student's Book 2A  Unit 8   Reading)




Accidents happen. We do our best to be careful and prevent bad things from happening, but most of us will eventually find ourselves in a situation where we or someone else needs help. Everyone should know what to do if an accident were to happen. Learning about first aid is the best way to make sure that we will not have to feel that we could have done more. Here is some advice for dealing with common injuries:

Animal bites. If you are bitten by an animal, wash the wound with cold running water. Then see a doctor as soon as possible.

Burns. Cool the area of skin at once. Wash the area of skin under the cold tap for several minutes. Cover the wound with a loose bandage or a piece of dry clean cloth. See a doctor if a child has been burnt or if more than ten percent of the body has been burnt.

Cuts. For a simple cut, it is only necessary to wash the area of the cut, dry it and cover it with a piece of dry clean cloth. If a person is bleeding badly, you must try to stop the bleeding. If a person loses one third of his or her blood, he or she may die. Press a handkerchief onto the bleeding point and hold it there.

Poisoning. If you think that someone may have been poisoned, you should do the following. First, talk to the person to find out if he or she is conscious and breathing. If the person isn't breathing, clear the airway and try to get him or her to breathe. If the person is conscious and breathing, try to get him or her to spit out any poison that may still be in the mouth. Next, call for an ambulance. Search the room for any pills or bottles that may contain the poison. Send whatever you find to the hospital to help the doctor find out what kind of poison the person has swallowed.


(Senior English for China  Student's Book 2A  Unit 8   INTEGRATING SKILLS  Reading)


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